.: شهرسازان بزرگ - 1 : (( راینهارد باومایستر ))

(b Hamburg, 19 March 1833; d Karlsruhe, 11 Dec 1917). German architect and urban planner. He attended the Polytechnische Schule in Hannover (1849-51) and then the Polytechnikum at Karlsruhe, where he passed the state examination in engineering in 1853. An important influence was his teacher (and later father-in-law), Friedrich Eisenlohr, who at that time received several commissions for railway construction in south-west Germany, and no doubt did much to encourage Baumeister in this field. Lines created under the latter's direction were the Murgtalbahn from Rastatt to Weisenbach (1868), the line from Freiburg to Breisach (1870-71), and the Renchtalbahn from Appenweier to Oppenau (1876). As an urban planner, Baumeister laid out the Ringstrasse in Wiesbaden (1871). However, he turned more and more to theory, and his only notable later building is the Krankenhaus der Diakonissenanstalt (1888-90) in Karlsruhe. In 1862 he became a professor at the Karlsruhe Polytechnikum, where he lectured on bridge and tunnel construction and problems of city cleansing. In 1890 he was appointed to the chair of urban planning there, the first to be created in Germany. In 1895 he became the first rector of the Technischer Hochschule, Karlsruhe. He was also interested in questions of professional recognition. In 1869 he was among the founders of the Badischer Techniker-Verein, renamed in 1871 the Architekten- und Ingenieursverein. In 1910 he was represented at the Allgemeine St?dtebauausstellung in Berlin by two designs for Mannheim and Altona respectively. His book (1876) on the enlargement of cities from the technical and economic points of view was one of the first of its kind in Germany and was for a long time a standard work on the social implications of architectural problems, unrivalled until the publications of Camillo Sitte and Joseph St?bben (1845-1936). Baumeister sought to find a rational way between complete and therefore inorganic building freedom on the one hand and, on the other, excessive bureaucratic interference with the owner's right to build. He advocated the broadly conceived, long-term overall planning of new urban districts, including guidelines as regards transport and infrastructure, as opposed to the incorporation of small districts one after the other. He published many articles on these matters in German architectural journals. Although he also wrote many handbooks on engineering, covering both technical and legal problems, his name passed into oblivion for a long period.

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